- Reference manual
- The SWI-Prolog library
- library(aggregate): Aggregation operators on backtrackable predicates
- library(ansi_term): Print decorated text to ANSI consoles
- library(apply): Apply predicates on a list
- library(assoc): Association lists
- library(broadcast): Broadcast and receive event notifications
- library(charsio): I/O on Lists of Character Codes
- library(check): Consistency checking
- library(clpb): CLP(B): Constraint Logic Programming over Boolean Variables
- library(clpfd): CLP(FD): Constraint Logic Programming over Finite Domains
- library(clpqr): Constraint Logic Programming over Rationals and Reals
- library(csv): Process CSV (Comma-Separated Values) data
- library(dcg/basics): Various general DCG utilities
- library(dcg/high_order): High order grammar operations
- library(debug): Print debug messages and test assertions
- library(dicts): Dict utilities
- library(error): Error generating support
- library(fastrw): Fast reading and writing of terms
- library(gensym): Generate unique symbols
- library(heaps): heaps/priority queues
- library(increval): Incremental dynamic predicate modification
- library(intercept): Intercept and signal interface
- library(iostream): Utilities to deal with streams
- library(listing): List programs and pretty print clauses
- library(lists): List Manipulation
- library(main): Provide entry point for scripts
- library(nb_set): Non-backtrackable set
- library(www_browser): Open a URL in the users browser
- library(occurs): Finding and counting sub-terms
- library(option): Option list processing
- library(optparse): command line parsing
- library(ordsets): Ordered set manipulation
- library(pairs): Operations on key-value lists
- library(persistency): Provide persistent dynamic predicates
- library(pio): Pure I/O
- library(portray_text): Portray text
- library(predicate_options): Declare option-processing of predicates
- library(prolog_debug): User level debugging tools
- library(prolog_jiti): Just In Time Indexing (JITI) utilities
- library(prolog_trace): Print access to predicates
- library(prolog_pack): A package manager for Prolog
- library(prolog_xref): Prolog cross-referencer data collection
- library(quasi_quotations): Define Quasi Quotation syntax
- library(random): Random numbers
- library(rbtrees): Red black trees
- library(readutil): Read utilities
- library(record): Access named fields in a term
- library(registry): Manipulating the Windows registry
- library(settings): Setting management
- library(statistics): Get information about resource usage
- library(strings): String utilities
- library(simplex): Solve linear programming problems
- library(solution_sequences): Modify solution sequences
- library(tables): XSB interface to tables
- library(terms): Term manipulation
- library(thread): High level thread primitives
- library(thread_pool): Resource bounded thread management
- library(ugraphs): Graph manipulation library
- library(url): Analysing and constructing URL
- library(varnumbers): Utilities for numbered terms
- library(yall): Lambda expressions
- The SWI-Prolog library
- Reference manual
A.14 library(debug): Print debug messages and test assertions
This library is a replacement for format/3
for printing debug messages. Messages are assigned a topic. By
dynamically enabling or disabling topics the user can select desired
messages. Calls to debug/3
removed when the code is compiled for optimization unless the Prolog
flag optimise_debug is set to
Using the predicate assertion/1 you can make assumptions about your program explicit, trapping the debugger if the condition does not hold.
Output and actions by these predicates can be configured using hooks to fit your environment. With XPCE, you can use the call below to start a graphical monitoring tool.
- [nondet]debugging(?Topic, ?Bool)
- Examine debug topics. The form
debugging(+Topic)may be used to perform more complex debugging tasks. A typical usage skeleton is:
( debugging(mytopic) -> <perform debugging actions> ; true ), ...
The other two calls are intended to examine existing and enabled debugging tokens and are typically not used in user programs.
- Add/remove a topic from being printed.
nodebug(_)removes all topics. Gives a warning if the topic is not defined unless it is used from a directive. The latter allows placing debug topics at the start of a (load-)file without warnings.
For debug/1, Topic can be a term
Topic > Out, where Out is either a stream or stream-alias or a filename (an atom). This redirects debug information on this topic to the given output. On Linux systems redirection can be used to make the message appear, even if the
user_errorstream is redefined using
?- debug(Topic > '/proc/self/fd/2').
A platform independent way to get debug messages in the current console (for example, a
swipl-winwindow, or login using
sshto Prolog running an SSH server from the
libsshpack) is to use:
?- stream_property(S, alias(user_error)), debug(Topic > S).
Do not forget to disable the debugging using nodebug/1 before quitting the console if Prolog must remain running.
- List currently known topics for debug/3
and their setting. Options is either an atom or string, which
is a shorthand for
[search(String)]or a normal option list. Defined options are:
- Only show topics that match String. Match is case insensitive on the printed representation of the term.
- Only print topics that are active (
true) or inactive (
- Only print topics whose target location matches To. This option implicitly restricts the output to active topics.
- Specify additional context for debug messages.
- New code should use the Prolog flag message_context. This predicates adds or deletes topics from this list.
- [det]debug(+Topic, +Format, :Args)
- Format a message if debug topic is enabled. Similar to format/3
user_error, but only prints if Topic is activated through debug/1. Args is a meta-argument to deal with goal for the @-command. Output is first handed to the hook prolog:debug_print_hook/3. If this fails, Format+Args is translated to text using the message-translation (see print_message/2) for the term
debug(Format, Args)and then printed to every matching destination (controlled by debug/1) using print_message_lines/3.
The message is preceded by’% ’and terminated with a newline.
- See also
- [semidet,multifile]prolog:debug_print_hook(+Topic, +Format, +Args)
- Hook called by debug/3.
This hook is used by the graphical frontend that can be activated using prolog_ide/1:
- Acts similar to C
assert()macro. It has no effect if Goal succeeds. If Goal fails or throws an exception, the following steps are taken:
- call prolog:assertion_failed/2.
- If this is an interactive toplevel thread, print a message, the stack-trace, and finally trap the debugger.
- Otherwise, throw
error(assertion_error(Reason, G),_)where Reason is one of
failor the exception raised.
- call prolog:assertion_failed/2. If prolog:assertion_failed/2 fails, then:
- [semidet,multifile]prolog:assertion_failed(+Reason, +Goal)
- This hook is called if the Goal of assertion/1
fails. Reason is unified with either
failif Goal simply failed or an exception call otherwise. If this hook fails, the default behaviour is activated. If the hooks throws an exception it will be propagated into the caller of assertion/1.