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- Analysing and Constructing Terms
- Analysing and Constructing Atoms
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- Built-in list operations
- Finding all Solutions to a Goal
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- Built-in Predicates
- Packages

- Reference manual

## 4.28 Built-in list operations

Most list operations are defined in the library `library(lists)`

described in section A.21.
Some that are implemented with more low-level primitives are built-in
and described here.

**is_list**(`+Term`)- True if
`Term`is bound to the empty list (

) or a term with functor‘`[]`

`’[|]'`

’^{126The traditional list functor is the dot (’.'). This is still the case of the command line option --traditional is given. See also section 5.1.}and arity 2 and the second argument is a list.^{127In versions before 5.0.1, is_list/1 just checked for [] or [_|_] and proper_list/1 had the role of the current is_list/1. The current definition conforms to the de facto standard. Assuming proper coding standards, there should only be very few cases where a quick-and-dirty is_list/1 is a good choice. Richard O'Keefe pointed at this issue.}This predicate acts as if defined by the definition below on*acyclic*terms. The implementation*fails*safely if`Term`represents a cyclic list.is_list(X) :- var(X), !, fail. is_list([]). is_list([_|T]) :- is_list(T).

- [semidet]
**memberchk**(`?Elem, +List`) - True when
`Elem`is an element of`List`. This‘chk' variant of member/2 is semi deterministic and typically used to test membership of a list. Raises a`type`

error if scanning`List`encounters a non-list. Note that memberchk/2 does*not*perform a full list typecheck. For example,`memberchk(a, [a|b])`

succeeds without error. If`List`is cyclic and`Elem`is not a member of`List`, memberchk/2 eventually raises a`type`

error.^{128Eventually here means it will scan as many elements as the longest list that may exist given the current stack usage before raising the exception.} - [ISO]
**length**(`?List, ?Int`) - True if
`Int`represents the number of elements in`List`. This predicate is a true relation and can be used to find the length of a list or produce a list (holding variables) of length`Int`. The predicate is non-deterministic, producing lists of increasing length if`List`is a*partial list*and`Int`is unbound. It raises errors if`Int`is bound to a non-integer.`Int`is a negative integer.`List`is neither a list nor a partial list. This error condition includes cyclic lists.^{129ISO demands failure here. We think an error is more appropriate.}

This predicate fails if the tail of

`List`is equivalent to`Int`(e.g.,`length(L,L)`

).^{130This is logically correct. An exception would be more appropriate, but to our best knowledge, current practice in Prolog does not describe a suitable candidate exception term.} - [ISO]
**sort**(`+List, -Sorted`) - True if
`Sorted`can be unified with a list holding the elements of`List`, sorted to the standard order of terms (see section 4.6). Duplicates are removed. The implementation is in C, using*natural merge sort*.^{131Contributed by Richard O'Keefe.}The sort/2 predicate can sort a cyclic list, returning a non-cyclic version with the same elements.Note that

`List`may contain non-ground terms. If`Sorted`is unbound at call-time, for each consecutive pair of elements in`Sorted`, the relation`E1 @< E2`

will hold. However, unifying a variable in`Sorted`may cause this relation to become invalid,*even*unifying a variable in`Sorted`with another (older) variable. See also section 4.6.1. **sort**(`+Key, +Order, +List, -Sorted`)- True when
`Sorted`can be unified with a list holding the element of`List`.`Key`determines which part of each element in`List`is used for comparing two term and`Order`describes the relation between each set of consecutive elements in`Sorted`.^{132The definition of this predicate was established after discussion with Joachim Schimpf from the ECLiPSe team. ECLiPSe currently only accepts <, =<, > and >= for the Order argument but this is likely to change. SWI-Prolog extends this predicate to deal with dicts.}If

`Key`is the integer zero (0), the entire term is used to compare two elements. Using`Key`=0 can be used to sort arbitrary Prolog terms. Other values for`Key`can only be used with compound terms or dicts (see section 5.4). An integer key extracts the`Key`-th argument from a compound term. An integer or atom key extracts the value from a dict that is associated with the given key. A type_error is raised if the list element is of the wrong type and an existence_error is raised if the compound has not enough argument or the dict does not contain the requested key.Deeper nested elements of structures can be selected by using a list of keys for the

`Key`argument.The

`Order`argument is described in the table below:^{133For compatibility with ECLiPSe, the values <, =<, > and >= are allowed as synonyms.}Order Ordering Duplicate handling `@<`

ascending remove `@=<`

ascending keep `@>`

descending remove `@>=`

descending keep The sort is

*stable*, which implies that, if duplicates are kept, the order of duplicates is not changed. If duplicates are removed, only the first element of a sequence of duplicates appears in`Sorted`.This predicate supersedes most of the other sorting primitives, for example:

sort(List, Sorted) :- sort(0, @<, List, Sorted). msort(List, Sorted) :- sort(0, @=<, List, Sorted). keysort(Pairs, Sorted) :- sort(1, @=<, Pairs, Sorted).

The following example sorts a list of rows, for example resulting from csv_read_file/2) ascending on the 3th column and descending on the 4th column:

sort(4, @>=, Rows0, Rows1), sort(3, @=<, Rows1, Sorted).

See also sort/2 (ISO), msort/2, keysort/2, predsort/3 and order_by/2.

**msort**(`+List, -Sorted`)- Equivalent to sort/2,
but does not remove duplicates. Raises a
`type_error`

if`List`is a cyclic list or not a list. - [ISO]
**keysort**(`+List, -Sorted`) - Sort a list of
*pairs*.`List`must be a list of

pairs, terms whose principal functor is (-)/2.`Key`-`Value``List`is sorted on`Key`according to the standard order of terms (see section 4.6.1). Duplicates are*not*removed. Sorting is*stable*with regard to the order of the`Values`, i.e., the order of multiple elements that have the same`Key`is not changed.The keysort/2 predicate is often used together with library

`library(pairs)`

. It can be used to sort lists on different or multiple criteria. For example, the following predicates sorts a list of atoms according to their length, maintaining the initial order for atoms that have the same length.:- use_module(library(pairs)). sort_atoms_by_length(Atoms, ByLength) :- map_list_to_pairs(atom_length, Atoms, Pairs), keysort(Pairs, Sorted), pairs_values(Sorted, ByLength).

**predsort**(`+Pred, +List, -Sorted`)- Sorts similar to sort/2,
but determines the order of two terms by calling
`Pred`(-`Delta`, +`E1`, +`E2`) . This call must unify`Delta`with one of

,`<`

or`>`

. If the built-in predicate compare/3 is used, the result is the same as sort/2. See also keysort/2.`=`